Relationship between free trade and income inequality in South America
PDF

Palabras clave

Inequidad
Suramérica
libre comercio

Cómo citar

Giraldo Suárez, A. (2015). Relationship between free trade and income inequality in South America. Revista Civilizar De Empresa Y Economía, 6(11), 27-54. https://doi.org/10.22518/2462909X.554

Resumen

Abstract

Latin American societies have experienced excessive income inequality. Several reasons explain this disparity from cultural and economic factors. This research attempts to analyse whether free trade has contributed to increase economic inequality on the region, and whether this relationship is linked with how much countries have liberalised their international trade. For that, quantitative data was analysed using correlation and linear regression for the period 1990-2010 in South America. It was found that pro-market policies have different effects of inequality, according to the country.  

Received: 21/05/2015  Accepted: 04/11/2015

 

Resumen

Las sociedades latinoamericanas han experimentado altos índices de inequidad económica, explicados por factores culturales y económicos. Esta investigación intenta analizar si el libre comercio ha contribuido a incrementar la inequidad económica en Suramérica para el periodo 1990-2010. Para ello, se analizaron datos cuantitativos usando correlaciones y regresión linear. Se encontró que las políticas de liberalización comercial presentan efectos diferentes sobre la inequidad dependiendo de cada país.

Recibido: 21/05/2015   Aceptado: 04/11/2015

https://doi.org/10.22518/2462909X.554
PDF

Citas

Acemoglu, D & Robinson, J. (2012). Why nations fail: The origens of power, prosperity, and poverty. New York. Crown Business.
AFP. (2013). FMI dice que Colombia sera el lider de la economia en 2014. Portafolio. Bogota.
Azman-Saini, W. N. W., Baharumshah, A. Z., & Law, S. H. (2010). Foreign direct investment, economic freedom and economic growth: International evidence. Economic Modelling, 27(5), 1079–1089. doi:10.1016/j.econmod.2010.04.001
Baltzer, M., & Baten, J. (2008). Height, trade, and inequality in the Latin American periphery, 1950-2000. Economics and human biology, 6(2), 191–203. doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2007.11.002
Baumol, W. (1986). Productivity growht, convergence and welfare: What the long - run data show. American Economic Review, 76, 1072–85.
Bertoli, S., & Farina, F. (2007). The functional distribution of income: a review of the theoretical literature and of the empirical evidence around its recent pattern in European countries. Dipartimento. Dipartimento di Politica Economica, Finanza e Sviluppo. Universita di Siena. Retrieved from http://www.depfid.unisi.it/images/pdf/text5.pdf
Blau, F., & Kahn, L. (1999). Institutions and laws in the labor market. Handbook of Labor Economics, 3.
CEPAL. (2013). Base de datos y publicaciones estadisticas. Retrieved from http://estadisticas.cepal.org/cepalstat/WEB_CEPALSTAT/Portada.asp
Coatsworth, J. H. (2008). Inequality, Institutions and Economic Growth in Latin America. Journal of Latin American Studies, 40(03), 545–569. doi:10.1017/S0022216X08004689
Cornia, G., & Court, J. (2004). Inequality, growth, and poverty in an era of liberalization and globalization. Retrieved from http://training.itcilo.org/decentwork/StaffConf2002/presentations/Ref-Cornia-Court-inequality,growth and poverty.pdf
Dollar, D. (1992). Outward-oriented developing economies really do grow more rapidly: Evidence from 95 LDCs, 1976-85. Economic Development and Cultural Change 1992, 523–544.
Dreher, A., Gaston, N., & Martens, P. (2008). Measuring Globalization - gauging its consequences. New York: Springer. Retrieved from http://globalization.kof.ethz.ch
ECLA (Economic Commission for Latin America. (1969). Development problems in Latin America. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Francois, J., & Rojas-Romagosa, H. (2004). Trade policy and the household distribution of income. Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper. Retrieved from http://repub.eur.nl/res/pub/6646/2004-0512.pdf
Frankel, J. A., & Romer, D. (1999). Does Trade Cause Growth? American Economic Review, 89(3), 379–399. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/117025
Furtado, C. (1971). Development and underdevelopment: A structural view. Berkeley.
Ganuza, E., Morley, S., Robinson, S., Piñeiro, V., & Vos, R. (2006). Are export promotion and trade liberalization good for Latin America’s poor? In Who gains from free trade? Routledge. Retrieved from http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=zNM3nD6QIKkC&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=FREE+TRADE+LATIN+AMERICA+AND+REDUCTION+OF+INEQUALITY&ots=H54zMc-MsF&sig=ynCWJt4KjV3si_FtSQcudc_hK20#v=onepage&q&f=true
Garay, L. J., Barberi, F., & Cardona, I. (2009). Impact of the US-Colombia FTA on the small farm economy in Colombia. Bogota. Retrieved from http://www.oxfamamerica.org/files/colombia-fta-impact-on-small-farmers-final-english.pdf
Gasparini, L., Cruces, G., Tornarolli, L., & Mejia, D. (2011). Recent trends in income inequality in Latin America. Economia, 11(2), 147–201. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41343452
Gionvannoni, O. (2010). Functional distribution of income, inequality and the incidence of poverty : Stylized facts and the role of macroeconomic policy. The University of Texas. Inequality Project. Working Paper No. 58. Retrieved from http://utip.gov.utexas.edu/papers/utip_58.pdf
Gomez-Sabaini, J. C., & Jimenez, J. P. (2012). Tax structure and tax evasion in Latin America. Serie Macroeconomia del Desarrollo. United Nations ECLAC, 118(February).
Grilli, E. (2005). Political economy and economic development in Latin America in the second half of the 20th century. Journal of Policy Modeling, 27(1), 1–31. doi:10.1016/j.jpolmod.2004.11.001
Guillén, A. (2004). La teoría latinoamericana del desarrollo: reflexiones para una estrategia alternativa frente al neoliberalismo. In III Conferencia Internacional. Red de Estudios sobre el Desarrollo Celso Furtado. Retrieved from http://cadel2.uvmnet.edu/portalple/asignaturas/entornoSociopolitico/tools/cdv/Teor%C3%ADa_Latinoamericana.pdf
Haughton J, & Khandker SR. (2009). Inequality Measures (pp. 101–120). Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPA/Resources/429966-1259774805724/Poverty_Inequality_Handbook_Ch06.pdf
Hemphill, T. a. (2008). The Political Economy of Globalism in South America: Strategic Implications for Foreign Direct Investment. Competition & Change, 12(3), 287–303. doi:10.1179/102452908X320446
Heston, A., Summers, R., & Ate, B. (2012). Penn World Table Version 7. Center for International Comparisons of Production, Income and Prices at the University of Pennsylvania.
Hsu, S. (2008). The effect of political regimes on inequality, 1963-2002. University of Texas Inequality Project. Working paper No.53. Retrieved from http://utip.gov.utexas.edu/papers/utip_53.pdf
IMF. (2012). World economic outlook october 2012 coping with high debt and sluggish growth (p. 250). International Monetary Fund.
International Monetary Found. (2013). Commodity Price Index monthly price - Index number. Retrieved from http://www.indexmundi.com/commodities/?commodity=commodity-price-index&months=360
Isagiller, A. (2011). A cross-country investigation of inequality and growth with Theil indexes. İktisat Fakültesi Mecmuası, 61(2), 111–142.
Korzeniewicz, R., & Moran, T. (2003). World-economic trends in the distribution of income 1965-1992. In J. Passe-Smith & M. Seligson (Eds.), Development and Under-development. The Political Economy of Global Inequality (pp. 183–207). Lynne Rienner.
Krugman, P., Obstfeld, M., & Melitz, M. (2012). International Economics (Ninth.). Essex: Pearson.
Krugman, P., & Venable, A. (1995). Quarterly journal of economics. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 60(4).
Londoño, J. L. (2002). Trade , resources and inequality in Latin America. Cepal Review, 76, 25–38.
Lubrano, M. (2012). The econometrics of inequality and poverty Lecture 4 : Lorenz curves , the Gini coefficient and parametric distributions, (September).
Lustig, N., Lopez-calva, L. F., Ortiz-juarez, E., & Cases, T. (2012). Declining Inequality in Latin America in the 2000s : The Cases of Argentina , Declining Inequality in Latin America in the 2000s : Tulane Economics Working Paper Series, 26.
Montalbano, P. (2011). Trade Openness and Developing Countries’ Vulnerability: Concepts, Misconceptions, and Directions for Research. World Development, 39(9), 1489–1502. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.02.009
Montgomery, D., & Runger, G. (1996). Applied statistics and probabilities for engineers. Mexico D.F: McGraw - Hill.
Newbold, P., Carlson, W., & Thorne, B. (2012). Statistics for Business and Economics (Eight.). Pearson.
Nissanke, M., & Thorbecke, E. (2006). Channels and policy debate in the globalization–inequality–poverty nexus. World Development, 34(8), 1338–1360. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.10.008
Nissanke, M., & Thorbecke, E. (2010). Globalization, Poverty, and Inequality in Latin America: Findings from Case Studies. World Development, 38(6), 797–802. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2010.02.003
OCDE. (1997). Wage-setting institutions and outcomes”. Employment Outlook. Paris.
Olsun, M. (1982). The rise and decline of nations. Yale University Press.
Pérez, C., & Referencia, I. M. D. E. (1996). LA MODERNIZACION INDUSTRIAL EN AMERICA LATINA Y LA HERENCIA. Comercio Exterior, 46, 347–363.
Pessino, C., & Fenochietto, R. (2010). Determining countries’ tax effort. Revista de Economía Pública, 195(4), 65–87.
Popli, G. K. (2010). Trade Liberalization and the Self-Employed in Mexico. World Development, 38(6), 803–813. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2010.02.016
Prebish, R. (1950). The economic development of Latin America and its principal problems. New York.
Ramos, J. (2010). Sindicalismo en el “Sur.” Revista CEPAL, 100, 97–121. Retrieved from http://www.cepal.org/publicaciones/xml/7/39127/RVE100Completo.pdf#page=97
Rodríguez, F. (2006). Openness and growth: What have we learned? Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wess/wess_bg_papers/bp_wess2006_rodriguez_openness_growth.pdf
Rodriguez, F., & Rodrik, D. (2001). Trade policy and economic growth: A skeptic’s guide to the cross-national evidence. National Bureau of Economic Research., 15(January), 261–338. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/chapters/c11058.pdf
Rostow, W. (1960). The stages of economic growth: A non - communist manifesto. Cambridge University Press.
Sachs, J. D., & Warner, A. M. (1997). Trade Openness Indicators, 1950 - 1992. Version VI. Murray Research Archive at Harvard University. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/14495
Samuelson, P. (1948). International trade and the equalisation of factor prices. The Economic Journal, 58(230), 163–184.
Skipton, C. D. (2003). “Measuring Trade Openness, 1980-1999.” In The Annual Meetings of the Association of Private Enterprise Education. Las Vegas. Retrieved from http://chuckskipton.com/uploads/APEE_2003_paper_final_FULL.pdf
Solt, F. (2013). The Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/11992
Stiglitz, J. (2012). The price of inequality. London: Allen Lane.
The World Bank. (2008). Inequality in Latin America : Determinants and Consequences (p. 39).
The World Bank. (2013). The World dataBank. Retrieved from http://databank.worldbank.org/data/views/variableselection/selectvariables.aspx?source=jobs#
UNCTAD. (2009). World investment report 2009 (p. 314). New York and Geneva.
UNCTAD. (2012). Trade and development 2012 (p. 208). New York and Geneva: UNITED NATIONS.
UNCTAD. (2013). Commodities and development report 2013 (p. 178). New York and Geneva. doi:UNCTAD/SUC/2011/9
Warf, F. P., & Stutz, B. (2007). The world economy : resources, location, trade and development (5th ed.). Pearson.
Williamson, J. G. (2004). De-industrialization and underdevelopment: A comparative assessment around the periphery, 1750–1934.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.